Wednesday, August 20, 2008

Myths about Maratha Navy.

The biggest myth around Maratha navy is that, 'Maratha navy was the only naval establishment of an indigenous Indian kingdom during medieval period.'
Nothing could be further from truth.
When people claim such a thing, they indirectly imply that India, having a main coastline of 5,423 kilometers, was never blessed with able monarchs. That the said kings never thought of maintaining a trade fleet, let alone an armed navy.
However these critics forget that they themselves were so focused on mainland politics that they never saw the naval traditions which dot the coastline of India.
These men go so far as to say that the Muslim rulers ignored naval growth.

Now; for the myth-buster.

India's Military tradition has been interrupted from time to time, but its naval tradition has been continuous right from the time of Chandragupta Maurya, in 300 BC. The Cholas actually went as far as Malay Archipelago.
As far as medieval India is concerned, India’s naval strength was by far greater than Spain or Portugal. It was only in 1500s that the naval superiority of Sindhu Sagar (western sea) was successfully claimed by Portuguese.

Some of the many Indian Kings, & Princes (Pre-Shivaji) who maintained their own naval fleet were:

  • Raja of Honavar circa 1370s
  • Naik of Sangameshwar 1200s
  • Raja of Vishalgad 1400s
  • Koli Patil of Dabhol
  • Koli Patil of Rajpuri (His capital later became Janjira) 1500s
  • Samuthiri Raja of Kozhikode
  • Sultan of Gujarat till 1500s

Of the above mentioned Sultan of Gujarat was known as lord of the sea. (When Jahangir conquered Gujarat, he was presented with a gilded belt of the vanquished sultan. Jahangir saw the belt and exclaimed, 'Behold, for these are the articles of the Lord of the Sea').

Not only this, the Admiralty as established by Nizamshah of Ahmadnagar, later evolved into what we know today as the principality of Janjira.
Later after the death of Ahmadnagar Empire, Siddi of Janjira moved his allegiance to Adilshah of bijapur. The Bijapur sultan himself maintained a naval station at Karwar.
Qutubshah of Golconda also maintained his own fleet. His trade fleet travelled to Mecca each year.

Akbar, a Central Asian Mongol, established a Naval fleet based in Bengal (Bengal or Ancient Anga has been a centre for shipbuilding for centuries.) Shaitakhan(the one whose fingers were cut by Shivaji), was a great reformer of the Mughal fleet at Bengal.

What I want to convey to you, is that to enhance the greatness and ingenuity of Marathas, do not ignore the rich contribution of so many other naval leaders. They deserve the credit which has been denied to them.


Zeital said...

Nice article! I would like to mention both Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan who developed the Navy for Mysore. It would be interesting to know why the Maratha Navy was not developed further after the death of Admiral Kanhoji Angre. The Mughals under Aurangzeb defeated the English in 1685 when they sought to take Chittagong and had to pay reparations. Finally, the Kingdom of Travancore defeated the Dutch East India Company in the Battle of Kulachal, which led to the decline of Dutch influence in India. It would be worth including the French connection and French alliances to various Indian states such as Mysore, and in particular the check on British influence due to naval campaigns of Admiral Pierre André de Suffren in India.

Unknown said...

Dear Shri Pratish Khedekar,
Congratulations on you interest in Maratha Navy.
My name is Sachin Pendse and have been trying to understand world war ll from a different angle, with special relation to arms and battle strategies. I do have a fairly good collection of information in this reference.

I would be interested to know the sources from where you intend to gather the information realted to various aspects of Maratha Navy, as mentioned in your blog.
On the basis of little information I have come across, I sincerely feel that the efforts will much more than expected.
I would be obbliged if you could help me to know the sources particulalry related to firearma and on deck artillery.
Awating for a word in reply.
please mail on
I will give you my contact number once I get a mail from you.
We can meet in person and discuss further.

I may be of help to you in this regards

Wishing you allthe best in the effort.

S.S.Pendse, Andheri Mumbai